Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Consciousness Language in George Orwells 1984 - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1358 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/09/22 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Topics: 1984 Essay Did you like this example? Newspeak is the official language of Oceania. It is the depletion of words. The Party wanted to make it impossible to commit thoughtcrimes by literally erasing all of the negative words that one would use. Oldspeak is what Winston and the proles spoke in. By 1984, most people had abandoned Oldspeak. The Party did not bother teaching the proles the new language because they didn’t care about them. The proles have a conscience but they are not conscience of their consciousness. Winston could not bring himself to use Newspeak because he still had a sense of emotions that did not exist in Newspeak. Winston can still remember and thinks he can feel a sense of family, love, and guilt. The only emotions other people felt were pain, hatred and loyalty to the Party. Speaking in Oldspeak was a sign of consciousness. Throughout the book Winston grew to a stronger sense of awareness. The memories he began to acquire made him realize the lies the Party told. Winston was able to recall his memories because he used language and thought. The party believed Proles and animals are free. They were free to use thought and Oldspeak. They are somewhat conscious of themselves. Proles don’t care about anything the Party would call important, so they are allowed to think what they want without having to fear the Party. They are allowed to think what they want. They are allowed to marry whom they want and spend their time how they please. This leads the reader to assume that although they are not educated, they have some sort of decision making process. Even if they do not make use of it they have it. On page 71, the book explains that the Proles needed to be kept in subjection, but they were not necessarily watched. The Party felt no need to keep to harsh of a watchful eye on them because they weren’t smart enough to be a threat to the Party; and if one had become risk, one would be killed. The way they were controlled was being occupied by beer an d gambling. The Proles were free to marry whom they wanted. This shows they are conscious of feelings towards another Human being. They have a sense family. They did not call each other comrades like the Party. They raised their children without preparing them for the Party. This meant that the children were less likely to turn on their parents. The Party did not marry a person based on their emotional feelings, they married someone convenient. In fact, Party members were not allowed to marry if they had been attracted to their partner. On page 70, Winston writes in his diary, â€Å"Until they become conscious they will never rebel, and until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious†. Winston believes they are not free. You cannot be liberated without consciousness. Therefore, the Proles will never be conscious. However, the proles are conscious because they speak in Oldspeak, they just have a different type of consciousness than Winston. They are conscious of making decisions such as choosing a spouse. They own their own businesses and spend their days how they please. Winston is conscious in a different way. He is aware of the lies of the Party. On page 135 he says, â€Å"In this game we are playing, we can’t win†. Winston is conscious that the Party will always prevail. He doesn’t know how much control they can actually have yet, but he knows eventually him and Julia will lose. They know it is a matter of time before they are found out by the Thought Police. He acknowledges that by saying, â€Å"we are dead†. She replies, â€Å"we are not dead yet†. He knows that the Party will always win but that they are always wrong. He has memories from before the Revolution, before the Party ruled. He knows things that the Party says are wrong. For example, when they tell the people that they have always been at war with Eurasia, they believe it. Although just the day before they knew they were at peace wi th Eurasia and their enemy was Eastasia. This is because the people of Oceania used Double Think. Winston was conscious of Double Think and therefore knew he could not believe two contradictory ideas. When Winston was captured by the Though Police he was forced to â€Å"relearn† everything. Once Winston succumbs to O’Brien by giving in to double thinking and the Party, he loses his consciousness. Winston wonders if he is the insane one since he finds himself to be the only one to have these thoughts. Winston is conscious of how the Party uses language to manipulate the people. He understands that, for example, â€Å"war† and â€Å"peace† are two contradictory ideas. The Party, however does not. This is how Winston is different than the Party. He understands Double Think. He knows that in language there is something greater then orthodoxy. Winston longs to be able to think and behave how he pleases. Orthodoxy is the main belief of the Party. Fully sh aring in their beliefs and views is the ultimate form of unconsciousness. Almost everything that the Party said was a lie or a contradictory. For example their slogans, â€Å"WAR IS PEACE. FREEDOM IS SLAVERY. IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH†. Certainly we can see how ridiculous these statements are but to the Party members they made perfect sense. The slogans are normal to them because they don’t understand what â€Å"peace†, â€Å"freedom†, or â€Å"strength† truly means. Peace never existed because they were always at war with someone. No one is free, they cannot even think freely without getting found by the Thought Police. The strength and power was held entirely by the Inner Party. The government manipulated the people by using mind games and word play. An announcement plays explaining that the chocolate ration will be raised to twenty grams a week. The day before the announcement said that the ration will be reduced to twenty grams. No one caught it besides Winston. Everyone accepts whatever is fed to them by the Party. The depletion of language parallels the idea of the depletion of consciousness. Human beings have the ability to think in language. If we are not capable of language then we are not truly conscious. The Party’s goal was to eliminate words to make thoughtcrime impossible. If there were no words to express it, they believed, then no one would be able toconvey it. Syme tells Winston, â€Å"the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought† (53). If language is being narrowed, then consciousness is being decreased. Winston understands this, therefore, he cannot bring himself to speak the new language. The people do not even think when they speak. They speak with their mouths not with their brains. Winston calls it, â€Å"noise uttered in unconsciousness, like the quacking of a duck† (58). They don’t know what they are even saying because no words have real meanings. Pe ople don’t feel any complex emotions. They cannot even think what they want because their opinions will be known to the Thought Police. To indoctrinate the children to be loyal to the Party, they were only taught Newspeak. This made them easy targets of manipulation. They grew up never learning love for their family members or â€Å"comrades†. The Party wants the people like this so that no one will share ideas. If you are intimate with another person, you will feel comfortable to share ideas with one another. The people could not even choose a spouse whom they were attracted to because loyalty and love was to be felt for Big Brother only. This made the people easy to control. Power was the most important thing to the Party. When a person was caught committing a Though Crime, they were not captured to be punished, they were captured to be â€Å"cured†. The Party would drain the person until there was nothing left, and then they would fill their minds with the beliefs of Big Brother, and they would truly become unconscious. Works Cited Orwell, George. 1984. New York: New American Library, July 1950. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Consciousness Language in George Orwells 1984" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Drug Addiction Of The United States - 774 Words

It is possible to stop most drug addiction in the United States within a very short time. Simply make all drugs available and sell them at cost. Label each drug with a precise description of what effect - good and bad - the drug will have on the taker. This will require heroic honesty. Don t say that marijuana is addictive or dangerous when it is neither, as millions of people know - unlike speed, which kills most unpleasantly, or heroin, which is addictive and difficult to kick. For the record, I have tried - once - almost every drug and liked none, disproving the popular Fu Manchu theory that a single whiff of opium will enslave the mind. Nevertheless many drugs are bad for certain people to take and they should be told why in a sensible way. Along with exhortation and warning, it might be good for our citizens to recall (or learn for the first time) that the United States was the creation of men who believed that each man has the right to do what he wants with his own life as long as he does not interfere with his neighbor s pursuit of happiness (that his neighbor s idea of happiness is persecuting others does confuse matters a bit). This is a startling notion to the current generation of Americans. They reflect a system of public education which has made the Bill of Rights, literally, unacceptable to a majority of high school graduates (see the annual Purdue reports) who now form the silent majority - a phrase which that underestimated wit Richard Nixon tookShow MoreRelatedDrug Addiction : The United States2115 Words   |  9 PagesAddictions in the United States Audience Analysis Paper Summary of Survey Results The purpose of our survey was to gain insight into our audience’s attitudes and beliefs about addictions in the United States. Our audience consisted of 24 respondents, aged approximately between 18 and 22. These respondents had approximately two weeks to complete our survey. The survey consisted of seven Likert-scale questions, each with a number of sub-questions. All 24 respondents completed this survey. 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However, addiction canRead MoreNew Rehab Programs Should Be Introduced1420 Words   |  6 Pages Since the start of the Drug War, which was the motion to use more policing in order to end the illicit drug market, the amount of arrests have increased for drug possession. Rehab programs in state and federal prisons have helped people overcome their addiction and relapse. The same way that King Leonidas in the graphic novel, 300, went about his Spartan initiation, it portrays the way a drug addict tries to overcome their addiction. By continuing to arrest people for substance abuse, it makesRead MoreAddiction Counseling : An Bright Future Essay1191 Words   |  5 PagesAddiction Counseling: An Unfortunately Bright Future As a child, I was surrounded by drug and alcohol addiction. In fact, I didn’t realize this was even abnormal until I was nearly a teenager and saw that not all of my friends’ parents used illegal drugs on a regular basis or threw wild parties every weekend. 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Utilitarian theoryRead MoreHeroin Addiction : The United States1743 Words   |  7 PagesHeroin Addiction in the United States Overview of Heroin Addiction in the U.S. Heroin addiction is one of the leading killers of adolescents and adults in the United States. In recent years, addiction has skyrocketed, and â€Å"the rate of heroin-related overdose deaths increased by 286 percent between 2002 and 2013.† In 2002, â€Å"100 people per 100,000 were addicted to heroin, and that number has doubled by 2013† (The National Institute on Drug Abuse 2013). The most affected populations include low incomeRead MoreIntroduction . Addiction Is An Incontrollable Need For728 Words   |  3 PagesIntroduction Addiction is an incontrollable need for a substance. When someone is addicted, the feeling of being hooked to a substance makes you psychologically believe you cannot go without that substance. These addictions are not only hurting the person doing the substance, but it can tare families apart. Opiate addiction is a disease that is looked down upon by society. If substance users to not get the treatment they need, they will continue to do everything in their power to get ahold of theRead MorePolicy And Implications Of The President s Inaugural National Drug Control Strategy Essay1727 Words   |  7 Pagesinaugural, the 2010 National Drug Control Strategy presented an evidence-based practice that addressed reducing drug use and eliminating its consequences in the United States (National Drug Control Strategy, 2013). The president responded by having his administration draft the â€Å"third way† in drug policy, which rejects taking extreme measures on drug addicts and in crimi nalizing them, also minimizing the United States participation in the â€Å"war on drugs† (National Drug Control Strategy, 2013). This

Demand & Supply of Resources in Australia-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Demand and Supply of Certain Resources in Australia. Answer: Availability of resources is the basics for production activity in the economy. Rich a nation is natural resources greater is the scope for economic growth of the nation. Sometimes despite having, plenty of natural resources country often lags behind the expected growth. An example o such nation is Africa. Because of inability to extract the resources, the resources remain unutilized. Therefore, proper resource management is crucial. In the paper, demand supply management of resources in Australia is discussed. Summary highlights of the story Agricultural, mineral and human resources are basis for Australian production activity. The analysis of primary resource is similar to general analysis. However, special attention needed for mineral and human resources. In the stock of mineral resources, Australia encounters problem in the domestic availability of natural gas. Natural gas is used as a primary raw material in power plants. With a lack of supply of basic raw materials, power production is hampered. Contraction in power supply increase price of electricity causing suffering to domestic household. The problem is supply shortage is although created by large suppliers of LNG. This is the main discussion topic of the article chosen for present analysis ( 2017). The main force for supply shortage is the large-scale export of LNG. The international market is a more lucrative place for business. A large share of natural gas was previously supplied by Queensland alone. With growing attention to export, more than 58% of supplied gas is now exported to big exporters like Shell, Origin and Santos (Lodhia et al. 2013). This contributes to mismatch between supply and demand in the domestic target. In Australia, most of the power plants are directed to use natural gas that coal keeping in mind the clean energy target of the state. In this situation if the main resource for power generation are used for meeting external demand then there is an obvious supply crisis. Given the demand, the restricted supply increases price largely. Despite paying a high price people in Australia cannot be secured with a undisturbed power supply. Record suggest that domestic price for natural gas increased by 57% in the last two years (Giurco et al. 2014). In the report, prediction for a future supply shortage is also predicted for some major states in Australia. These states include New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. Another reason for high price in the energy market is the movement of major suppliers as a cartel. They do so to stay in the international market by recovering their loss at the cost of domestic producers. Economic theories and concept The problem that Australia is facing is directly connected with common economic problem of lack of supply to meet the demand and resulted high price. Balance between supply and demand is an important condition for smooth functioning of free market. Demand defines buyers willingness to pay for a good in the market. Suppliers take their decision about how much quantity they are willing to supply in the market (Ali et al. 2017). The parity between buyers and suppliers decision determine the state of the market. In case where there is mismatch between these, two the price will be either higher or lower than the price prevail under free market condition. When there is a reduction in supply, then this is indicated by an inward shift in the supply curve. However, demand cannot respond so quickly and in case of necessary good demand does not change at all. To serve large number of consumers with a limited supply, price increases rapidly. This is preciously what is happening is Australian mar ket. Figure 1: effects of an inward shift in the supply curve (Source: Rader 2014) Before 1990, the position of Australia in international market is not so strong. As a result, domestic resources are used only for meeting domestic demand. there was no problem in the power sector . Both coal and natural gas were used to supply power for domestic and industrial use. With economic progress, international relation strengthens and gives a boost to export. The export of LNG increases (Moran and Kunz 2014). Many of the suppliers completely restrict their domestic supply and only engage in exportation. Individual decision of some suppliers resulted in a nationwide shortage of power and blackout becomes more frequent. Another economic theory that needs to be evaluated is the impact of cartel in the market. Oligopoly sellers are often interested in forming a cartel in order to enjoy a greater control in the market (Currie, Peel and Peters 2016). Two or more large player in the market jointly takes the decision regarding price and output. The firm having high production cost may supply a small quantity whereas firm having low cost supplies a greater quantity. Industry as a whole has the joint supply and the firms enjoy equal industrial profit. In case of Australia, suppliers form cartel to set a high price. The price in domestic market is often higher than that in the international market (Rader 2014). Recommendation The present problem of mineral resource in Australia is the existing supply shortage and high price. Regulation should be made to control price. Traditional methods like setting a price ceiling may be one strategy. Another strategy to reduce price is to increase domestic supply by reducing export. Government can impose a quota an export. Supply excess of domestic demand should only be allowed for export. Instead of depending only on natural gas, alternative sources for fuelling power plants should be encouraged. Use of modern emission efficient technology is one way out in this regard. Conclusion The paper analyses demand and supply situation for mineral resources in Australia. There is high mismatch between supply and demand in this industry. Supply fall short of demand resulting in a high price. Increase in export is one reason for supply shortage. Close down of old plants is another factor contributing to lack of power supply. Consumers are exposed to high price and frequent blackouts. Regulation needs to be made to correct the situation. Suppliers should give priority to domestic demand first. The problem, if not solved quickly then can become even bigger and prevent economic progress. References Ali, S.H., Giurco, D., Arndt, N., Nickless, E., Brown, G., Demetriades, A., Durrheim, R., Enriquez, M.A., Kinnaird, J., Littleboy, A. and Meinert, L.D., 2017. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance.Nature,543(7645), pp.367-372. Currie, D., Peel, D. and Peters, W. eds., 2016.Microeconomic Analysis (Routledge Revivals): Essays in Microeconomics and Economic Development. Routledge. (2017).Gas shortages could cause NSW blackouts. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Aug. 2017]. Giurco, D., Littleboy, A., Boyle, T., Fyfe, J. and White, S., 2014. Circular economy: questions for responsible minerals, additive manufacturing and recycling of metals.Resources,3(2), pp.432-453. Lodhia, S.K., Moran, C., Kunz, N.C. and Huisingh, D., 2013. The sustainability agenda of the minerals and energy supply and demand network: an integrative analysis of ecological, ethical, economic, and technological dimensions. Moran, C.J. and Kunz, N.C., 2014. Sustainability as it pertains to minerals and energy supply and demand: a new interpretative perspective for assessing progress.Journal of cleaner production,84, pp.16-26. Rader, T., 2014.Theory of microeconomics. Academic Press.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Rural Bank of Suares Essay Example

Rural Bank of Suares Essay Company History ORBS was incorporated in 1974 by a small group of stockholders from the town of Shares located 25 kilometers away from the capital city in a province in Southern Mindanao. Since its founding, ORBS remained the only banking institution operating in this town of about 45,000 people. After its founding, the bank immediately found patronage among the townsfolk so that its stockholders, who were all townspeople of Shares had high hopes for their bank. Within a few years, however, the bank came into serious uncial difficulties. Whether because of lack of foresight or because of pressure from government agencies during the Marcos regime, ORBS, like nearly all rural banks in the country at that time, assumed heavy exposure in the governments disastrous countryside lending program called Manage 99 which resulted in millions of pesos of unsecured and unaccountable loans to rice and corn farmers for the bank. For nearly two decades, the bank, burdened by these unaccountable loans, eked out a survival existence as the Central Bank authorities allowed the bank to carry these uncorrectable accounts in its books and gradually write these off against whatever operating income the bank earned from its regular lending activities through the years. Until recently, therefore, the bank had not been able to expand or pay dividends to its stockholders. We will write a custom essay sample on Rural Bank of Suares specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Rural Bank of Suares specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Rural Bank of Suares specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Progress in Recent Years Under pressure from the Central bank authorities, the stockholders of the bank were forced to infuse in 1990 another UP million in the fresh equity investments in ORBS to beef up its depleted resources or face closure by the Central Bank. By dint of patient management and ireful husbanding of its resources, the ORBS management was able to rehabilitate the bank and expand both its deposit base and its loan volume. In 1993, ORBS reported modest profits for the first time after years of breakable operations. Because of this history, Argues financial report for 1995 visibly heartened the stockholders gathered in the meeting that morning. The Planned Branch Expansion to the City Argues Justified his proposal to open a branch office in the capital city on two grounds. First, he felt that the limits to expanding both its deposit base and ending activities in the small town of Shares had already been reached. Second, the market for loans and deposits was perceived to be larger in the capital city which was the financial and commercial center of the province with a population more than ten times that of Shares. The opportunities in the city could be seen in the fact that many current borrowers of the bank were residents of the capital city, according to the general manager. These borrowers could be better served if ORBS established a branch office in the city, not to mention the more attractive deposit taking capabilities that would result from this move, he added. Argues estimated the expansion to require approximately ten million pesos, as follows Land acquisition (300 sq. M. ) UP million Building Construction and Fixtures 0. Million Total 8 million Equipment 10. 5 million He explained that UP million would be generated internally and the UP million would be sourced through a loan from a large commercial bank with a branch in the city. He stressed that the time for consolidation was over and the bank was now in a position to ruse a more aggressive expansion strategy. Reactions from the Stockholders There were mixed reactions from the stockholders to Mr.. Argues proposal. Two stockholders expressed general skepticism of the plan. Stockholder 1 why do we want to expand to the city where branches of the big banks in Manila are located Can we compete with those Argues The branches of the Manila banks do not cater to small loans of say IIOP,OHO to 400,000. This is why we have borrowers from the City. The branches of Manila banks will not entertain them. This is our niche in the loan market Stockholder 1 But there are two other rural banks in the City which can do what we do. Argues Then, its a game of who can do it better. Im not afraid of them as competitors. I think we can compete effectively through better service. How do you think weve managed to get so many borrowers from the City to come to Shares and borrow from us Stockholder 2 Why do you have to buy land and build a building Cant you Just rent space the way other banks do This way you can reduce the capital required drastically. Argues I dont like renting. You spend a lot to build a nice branch office and then theyll increase the rent and youre stuck.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Priming Of Social Attitudes The WritePass Journal

Priming Of Social Attitudes Abstract Priming Of Social Attitudes Abstract IntroductionMethodParticipantsMaterialsDesign Procedure ResultsDiscussion ReferencesRelated Abstract Previous research has indicated that social behaviour can be automatically activated when primed by traits (Higgins, Rholes Jones, 1977). The present study investigated whether participants are more like to interrupt an experimenter and unseen confederate when primed by words semantically associated with rudeness, compared with positive and neutral words. It represented a replication of the Bargh, Chen and Burrows experiment (1996) with one alteration; the total number of interruptions rather than time taken to interrupt was measured. 54 undergraduate students aged between 19 and 25 participated in a between-subjects experiment, and were randomly assigned to one of three experimental levels. Participants were asked to complete a Scrambled Sentence Task containing either rude, polite or neutral words. In order to indicate their completion, participants had to interrupt the conversation of the experimenter. As hypothesised, particpants allocated to the rude condition were significantl y more likely to interrupt the experimenter than those in the neutral or polite conditions. Introduction The extent to which one has intentional control over their own thoughts and behaviours has formed the basis of much research in the field of social psychology. During the 1970’s the distinction between automatic and conscious thought processes emerged, and has became the focus of much attention (Bargh, 1989). Research concentrating on social cognition and attitude formation has documented that many phenomena are unintentional or automatic in nature. Stereotypes, for example, can be automatically elicited merely by the presense of physical features commonly associated with the stereotyped group. Similarly, the presense of an ‘attitude object’ can automatically elicit an attitude, which in turn exerts influence on behaviour (Bargh, Chen Burrows, 1996). Both are examples of priming, which refers to the effect observed when exposure to a certain stimulus influences responses to a second stimulus. In social psychology, priming can be understood in terms of the tendenc y for recent information to influence subsequent thoughts. An early example of this came from Higgins, Rholes and Jones (1977). In this research, particpants read a passage involving a man attempting certain ambitious physical feats. Prior to this, particpants were told they were particpating in a memory task, and were given a list of attributes to read. Half of the particpants were ‘positvely primed’ and given words such as ‘adventurous’ and ‘brave’. The other half were ‘negatively primed’ and given words such as ‘foolish’ and ‘reckless’. After reading the passage, particpants were asked to give their impressions of the man in the story. Those who had been positively primed formed more positive impressions of the man in the passage than those who had been negatively primed. Forgas and Bower (1987) looked at the effect of priming on how people judge information about others. Participants were assigned to one of two conditions. In the first condition, participants were given information that primed a happy mood. In the second, particpants were given information to prime a sad mood. Participants in both conditions were then given identical person descriptions to read. They found that those who had been primed to experience a happy mood formed more positive impressions of the people in the person descriptions than those primed to experience a sad mood. An experiment by Bargh, Chen and Burrows (1996; exp2) demonstrated that priming influences behaviour, investigating the behavioural consequence of automatic stereotype activation based on the premise that a typical stereotypical view of the elderly concerns slowness. Participants were presented with scrambled sentences containing words that related to elderly stereotypes, or sentences containing neutral words. Importantly, the authors ensured that none of the words in the ‘elderly’ condition were directly related to slowness. This ensured that any observed behaviour change was attributable to the stereotype of elderly being activated (and the associated assumptions of slowness) rather than focusing attention on the single trait of being slow. Following this, particpants were asked to leave the room, and were timed walking down a hallway to return to the waiting area, to test whether priming participants with the concept of elderly would automatically and unconsciously ch ange their behaviour to emulate the elderly. As predicted, participants who were primed with the stereotypical information took longer to walk down the hallway than those who received the neutral information. Carver, Ganellen, Froming and Chambers (1983) demonstrated the priming effect of aggression on particpant’s subsequent behaviour. Participants were divided into two conditions and given scrambled sentences containing either aggressive or neutral concepts, diguised as part of a seemingly unrelated study. They were then asked to participate in an experiment of human learning where particpants were able to punish another participant (actually a confederate) by administering electric shocks for incorrect responses. Those in the aggressive condition administered stronger shocks than those in the control condition. The studies discussed thus far have indicated that priming can influence both perceptions and behaviour. From this premise, Bargh et al. (1996, exp 1) investigated whether this effect overrode the typical processes one uses in everyday life, such as social judgement. In this experiment, 34 participants were informed that they were taking part in a test of language ability, and presented with a scrambled sentence test. They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions priming conditions, rude, polite and neutral. Participants were asked to complete the task individually, then notify the experimenter in another room. When the participant entered the second room, they found the experimenter in conversation with a second participant (a confederate). The critical outcome measure of the study was the length of time the participant took to interupt the conversation between the experimenter and confederate. They found that those in the rude condition did interupt significantly faster th an those in the polite and neutral conditions. However, the results suffered from significant ceiling effects; 21 of the 34 participants did not interupt at all. The present study was a replication of Bargh et al.’s(1996) experiment and borrows heavily from their methodology, but with one critical difference. In an attempt to address the methodological issues caused by the strong ceiling effects observed by Bargh et al., the current experiment measured the total number of people to interupt in each condition, rather than the time taken to interupt. Based on the findings of Bargh et al., the experimental hypothesis predicted that significantly more particpants in the ‘rude’ condition would interupt the experimenter than those in the ‘polite’ and neutral conditions. Furthermore, it was predicted that there would be no significant difference in the number of participants in the polite and neutral conditons who interupted the experimenter. Method Participants A total of 54 undergraduate psychology students, 34 females and 19 males, aged between 19-25 (mean age 20.3), volunteered to participate in the experiment. Materials Each of the participants was presented with Scrambled Sentence Test which was presented as a test of language ability. Comprising 30 items, participants had to use listed words to form a grammatically correct four-word sentence as quickly as possible. There were three versions of the scrambled-sentence test: for the rude and polite conditions, 15 of the 30 items contained words that were associated with the trait in question. In the neutral condition, these 15 were replaced with neutral words. The remaining 15 items were idetical across the three conditions. Design ÃŽ ¤he design of the experiment was between subjects, and had three experimental conditions. Participants were randomly assigned to each condition. The independent variable was the condition that the participant was assigned to and had three levels;   rude, polite and neutral. The dependent variable was the number of participants who interupted the experimenter. Procedure Participants took part in the experiment one at a time. They were informed that they were to participate in a language ability study, and their consent to participate was obtained. Each participant received an envelope that contained 30 scrambled sentences, and were told the task was concerned with grammatical construction. They were asked to form a grammatically correct four-word sentence from a list of five-word scrambled sentences. Particpants were then given one of three versions of the test (rude, polite or neutral) of the scrambled-sentence test, and asked to complete it as quickly as possible. Upon completion, participants were asked to find the experimenter in a second room and notify them of their completion, in order to move on to the next experimental task. Participants was randomly assigned to each condition, to which the experimenter was blind. When the participant entered the second room, the experimenter appeared to be engaged with another unseen particpant (actually a confederate). The experimenter and confederate continued their discussion until interupted by the participant. The confederate noted which of the participants elected to interrupt. Results Table 1: Total number of participants who did/did not interrupt in each condition (polite, neutral, rude). Word Type Polite (n) Neutral (n) Rude (n) Did not interrupt 15 10 8 Interrupted 3 6 12 The dependent variable of the experiment was the total number of participants that interrupted the experimenter in each word type condition, and as can be seen from Table 1, participants in the rude condition interrupted most frequently (n = 12). Participants in the polite condition interrupted the least (n = 3). The propensity to interrupt increased across the levels of the independent variable; a higher number of participants in the neutral condition (n = 6) interrupted than in the polite group. A higher number again interrupted in the rude group. The results of this experiment were statistically analysed used a Chi-square goodness-of-fit test. This test was selected as the data was categorical, numerical and discrete. It produced a goodness-of-fit between the observed and expected values. If priming had no effect on interrupting behaviour, distribution across the conditions would be equal. The Chi-square test demonstrated whether the observed frequencies differed significantly from the expected frequencies. The result of the Chi-square was significant; participants in the rude condition were significantly more likely to interrupt the experimenter than participants in the neutral or positive condition, x2 (2, N = 54) = 7.50, p 0.5. Discussion This study examined whether priming traits (rudeness and politeness) could have an impact on social behaviour.   It was hypothesized that participants primed with rude traits would be more likely to interrupt an experimenter ostensibly engaged in a conversation with an unseen ‘participant’ than those who were primed with positive or neutral traits, and this hypothesis was fully supported by the results of the experiment. The study confirmed that people, when influenced by a rude prime condition, would demonstrate a negative impact on social behaviour, whilst the social behaviour of those who were influenced by a polite or neutral prime condition were unaffected. This finding supported the results of Bargh et al. (1996) despite the change to the dependent variable. This provides compelling evidence for their hypothesis regarding the automatic activation of social behaviours in the face of certain environmental features (in both cases, the rude primes). Not only does the replication confirm the original study findings, but the change in the dependent variable in the study under discussion improves on the methodological design flaw of the original. Interestingly, the present study also supported the original study finding of no significant difference in interrupting behaviour between the polite and neutral groups. This indicates that it is rude behaviour that is most likely to be automatically activated. Priming a participant with polite trait information does not appear to increase an individual’s politeness, or a significant difference between the neutral and polite levels would be observed. This is somewhat at odds with previous resea rch which indicated a bias towards increased postivity via priming (Higgins et al., 1977; Forgas Bower, 1987). However, these studies looked at the effect of priming on judgement, and not on behaviour. If the result of the present study is compared with Carver et al. (1983) study of negative priming and electric shock administration, both show an increased bias towards the propensity to prime negative behaviour. Although the change in the dependent variable from time to interrupt to presence of interrupting behaviour resolved the issue of ceiling effects described by Bargh et al. (1996), whilst producing a similar result, some detail was lost. Moving from a numerical scale (time) to a categorical measurement meant that the choice of statistical analysis available was limited. A future replication might involve measuring the total number of participants that interrupted, and the time taken among those that did. A second factor that should be considered is the possibility that those in the rude condition were simply a ruder group of participants and were more likely to interrupt despite the priming effect. To control for this possibility, a future replication could incorporate a personality questionnaire to control for propensity towards rude behaviour. The current study was a replication of Baugh et al.’s (1996) experiment 2. To resolve the original study’s problem of ceiling effects, a change was made to the dependent variable; instead of measuring the time taken to interrupt, the total number of those interrupting in each condition was measured. The results supported the finding of the original study, presentation of the rudeness trait primes subsequent rude behaviour; therefore social behaviour can be automatically triggered without conscious thought. References Bargh, J. A. (1989). Conditional automaticity: Varieties of automatic influence in social perception and cognition. In J. S. Uleman, J. A. Bargh (Eds.), Unintended Thought (pp. 3-51). New York: Guilford Press. Bargh, J.A., Chen, M., Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior: Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 230-244. Carver, C., Ganellen, R., Froming, W., Chambers, W. (1983). Modelling: an analysis in terms of c ategory accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 403–421. Forgas, J. P. Moylan, S. J. (1987). After the movies: The effects of transient mood states on social judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 478-489. Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,13, 141–154.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify

Pell Grant Eligibility and Requirements Do You Qualify SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Pell Grants are awarded by the federal US government to help students pay for college or vocational school.Figuring out whether you're eligible can be confusing, but this post will guide you through all the eligibility requirements you should knowabout if you want to apply for a federal Pell Grant. If you need a basic intro to what the Pell Grant is, check out our overview guide. Students are automatically considered for the Pell Grant when they submit their Free Application for Federal Student Aid, or FAFSA. You can learn more about submission here. In this post, we'll cover the following: How to figure out whether you're eligiblefor federal student aid What the Pell Grant income limits are How to figure out whether you're eligible for the Pell Grant specifically Pell Grant award maximums What you can do to increase your chances of getting the Pell Grant What Are the Federal Student Aid Requirements? Because the Pell Grant is a federal aid program, you need to meet basic eligibility for federal student aid in order to be considered for the Pell.There are a lot of complicated-seeming requirements, so we put together two lists that describeeverything you need before applying for aid. You need to check off every item on List #1 and one item on List #2. List #1 In order to be eligible for all federal aid, including the Pell Grant, you must meet all the following eligibility criteria: Eligibility Requirement Do you meet this criterion? Have a high school diploma, GED, or approved homeschool education Be enrolled or accepted to enroll in an eligible degree/certificate program You can check with your school/program’s financial aid office if you want to confirm eligibility Be registered with Selective Service,if you are male and 18-25 years old If applicable,register on the SS website Have a valid Social Security Number (unless you’re from the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, or Republic of Palau) Sign statements on the FAFSA stating that (1) you’re not in default and do not owe refund money on a federal student loan, and (2) you’ll only use federal aid money to help pay for your education Access the FAFSA Maintain "satisfactory" progress in school If you’re concerned about your academic performance or have questions about what is considered "satisfactory," set up a meeting with your dean or other school administrator List #2 In addition to the items listed above, you must be able to check ONEof the following: Be a US citizen or US national Have a green card Have an Arrival-Departure Record (I-94) Have battered immigrant status Have a T-Visa These are all the requirements necessary to apply for federal financial aid.If you didn't have any issues with the items listed above, you're on the right track! Want to build the best possible college application and financial aid package? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. Making sure you meet these requirements is a hassle, but it's worth it for free money, right? What Are the Pell Grant Requirements? There are a few eligibility requirements specific to the Pell Grant that you need to meet on top of the federal requirements we just discussed. Let's start by answering an important question: what are the Pell Grant income limits? The Pell Grant is meant primarily for low-income students who have not already received a post-secondary degree.There are some exceptions to this, but they're rare. For the purpose of this post, I'll be focusing onfuture and current college students. In a nutshell, to be considered eligible for the Pell Grant, you: Mustdemonstrate enough financial need (we'll get to the details of this shortly) Cannot already have a bachelor's or professional degree Easy enough, right? In the next section, I'll explain exactly what I mean when I say you need to demonstrate "enough financial need." What Are the Financial Need Requirements? This seems like a simple question, but the answer is actually somewhat complicated. Before I can answer this question, I need to briefly explain what financial information is considered important, and why. The Department of Education- the government department in charge of federal financial aid- takes a lot of factors into consideration when determiningwhether to award the Pell Grant. Put simply, the greater your family's financial need is, the greater the likelihood that you'll be awarded the grant. There's more to determining financial need than just looking at how much your parents make, however; your family's expenses are alsotaken into account. Lower income + more expenses = greater need. Allow me tobreak down what counts as income and what counts as an expense: Income: Your own personal income (if any) Your parents' income Assets belonging to you or your parents (e.g., savings or things they could own, such as a house) Expense: Number of people living in your household (more people = more expense) Number of family members (not including parents) who are attending college Your school's Cost of Attendance, or CoA- that is,how much you have to pay in tuition, room, board, and other expenses for one year Now that we've gotten through that information, I can better explain how your family's unique financial situation is analyzed when you're considered for a Pell Grant. All the above factors- income and expenses- are used to calculate yet another number called an Expected Family Contribution (EFC). If your EFC is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-20 academic year, you will be eligible to receive the Pell Grant. Each family's financial situation is different, and there's no one income cutoff that makes a student eligible or ineligible to receive the Pell. With that being said, here are some important facts to note: Most Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make less than $30,000 annually Some Pell Grants are awarded to students whose families make $30,000-$60,000 annually It's possible but rare for students to be awarded the grant if their families make more than $60,000 annually What Are the Requirements After You Get Your Pell Grant? Do You Ever Need to Repay Pell Grants? After you have met the requirements for both FAFSA and the Pell Grant, and have been awarded your Pell Grant, it's pretty easy to remain eligible for the grant. All you need to do is stay in school. However, if you drop out of school while you're receiving a Pell Grant or change from full-time student status to part-time student status, you might be required to repay all or part of your Pell Grant for that year or semester. If your school determines that you need to repay your Pell Grant, they'll send you a notice informing you of how much you owe and when you'll need to pay it by. You'll typically have 45 days to either pay the amount in full or set up a payment plan. You might have to focus a little more than you'd like on the family finances. How Much Money Can You Get From a Pell Grant? For 2019-2020, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195.Factors such as the amount of your Expected Family Contribution and enrollment status (full-time vs part-time) will affect how much money you can get. You can learn more about calculating your EFC with our Pell Grant Calculatorguide. What If You Don't Qualify for a Pell Grant? If you're above the Pell Grant income limits, there's not much you can do to change your family's financial situation, which is the maincriterionused when you apply for a Pell Grant. There are certain factors under your control that might affect your eligibility. Here are some potential eligibility issues and solutions: If you don't have a high school diploma but would like to attend college, you can get a GED to meet federal financial aid requirements. Make sure you apply to and enroll in colleges or vocational programs that participate in the Pell Grant program. If you're unsure whether a school is involved in the program, you can check with that school's financial aid office. If you're not eligible for financial aid because you're in default on a federal student loan, focus on paying back that debt before applying for more federal aid. Summary: How Pell Grant Eligibility Works The Pell Grant is anannual award given out by the federal government to students who need help paying for college.If you apply for FAFSA, you'll be automatically considered for a Pell Grant. To meet the Pell Grant requirements, you'll need to meet all the federal eligibility requirements for financial aid and provethat your expected family contribution is at or below $5,140 for the 2019-2020 school year. Currently, the maximum Pell Grant award is $6,195. Once you receivea Pell Grant, you don't need to pay it back, unless you drop out of school or change from full-time to part-time student status, in which case you'll need to repay all or part of your Pell Grant. What's Next? If you're already looking at how to get a Pell Grant, you might already know about the program. If not, you can read about everything you need to know in our in-depthPell Grant guide. Are you still putting together your college applications? You might want to learn more about application strategy and versatility. For more information on getting into your top-choice schools, check out our step-by-step guide. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Vancouver supervised assisted injection facility Essay

Vancouver supervised assisted injection facility - Essay Example It had strategic purposes to support its mission listed as; improving quality of life for the illicit drug users and their environment, harm reduction and health promotion, empowerment of the illicit users to live productively. This led to the formation of safe injection centers that administer the drugs safely to the addicts. This essay will present a sustained analysis of social and economic impact of the assisted injection facility located in Vancouver. In particular, I argue out the pros and cons of the facility using a two part survey, chronological order. First, I will consider materials crediting this facility, then to those that show its disadvantages written from 2000 till recent. I will show give brief accounts that indicate the demand for these facilities. A rough estimate of 15,000 people inject illicit drugs, this excludes the occasional users. Injection drugs are often accompanied with severe health and social consequences for the users and their society at large. Increased infections, death and the accompanying costs are the distressing indicators of harm experienced within our society. These problems have grown immensely over the years and drastic measures should be taken. Safe injection facilities have remained an integral part of effective harm reduction strategy placed in Europe. They are associated with an array of positive health and social results including; less drug use, fewer drug related overdoses, reduced disease transmission, less public nuisance associated with drug abuse, less drug related crime and more drug users referred for treatment. These centers also help in sustaining contact with the most marginalized and chaotic users who inject in public. Let us now view the Vancouver context. Estimated 10-20% injective drugs users reside in Vancouver. This population has experienced increased HIV/AIDS prevalence, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and other